DSM 5 or DSM VTweet
What is DSM or the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual?
DSM is the acronym of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It is created and published by American Psychiatric Association (APA) and it contains the definition, descriptions, symptoms, and diagnostic criterion of mental disorders. These criteria helps formulate a common language among all the medical fraternity and clinicians, professionals who treat patients with mental disorders.
DSM helps to write off the correct diagnosis and also helps in building the accuracy in identifying and diagnosing a proper mental illness. It helps wade off the false positives and false negatives. For example, if you wish to diagnose schizophrenia, then it has to be consisten between two different physicians in two different states. The DSM allows capture of such information which can then be set as the standard for a particular subject area of mental well being.
Every individual patient needs to undergo proper examination and evaluation before diagnosing any mental disease or illness as per the DSM defined methodology.
Some more uses of DSM
DSM helps to set the criteria of diagnosis. This can then be used for the research for the treatment, symptoms and cure of psychiatric disorders. Consistent and reliable diagnoses can only help compare the treatments for similar patients. We can determine the risk factors and causes for particular disease and then know their prevalence rates only by proper diagnosis as per DSM.
DSM disorders can also help form the treatment of the diseases as given by FDA. They can also help create the clinical practices for the diseases. All the DSM Codes are listed in ICD as well. DSM does not contain information on the treatment of the diseases. DSM is important since a proper diagnosis can help doctors treat the illness better by providing proper treatment.
Why there is need for DSM 4 upgrade to DSM 5 or DSM V?
DSM 1 was published in the year 1952. It has been upgraded and reviewed periodically since then. The advancement in the medical science and human genetics has lead to more and more information being explored in the last 2 decades or so. This has lead to new information neing discovered in the areas of behaviour sciences as well. The understanding has also increased in the mental illness front.
Further research has also created lot of of knowledge brain functions, the brain physiology, genes and environment impact on human health and well being. This has created a gap in the current trends and the latest DSM i.e. DSM 4. To fill this gap, there has been a need to create the DSM 5 as well.
What are the guiding principles of DMS 5 changes?
There are four guiding principles for the upgrade of DSM IV to DSM 5:
- Manual should be useful for people treated and people who treat.
- There has to be a research evidence for all recommendations.
- DSM-5 should have continuity with DSM IV.
- There cannot be any restraint for the changes permitted.
There are different work groups created which comprises of the mental health diagnosis experts from the different parts of the world. These groups analyze the need of the clinicians in terms of the changes needed to make the DSM IV non workable parts work. The parts of earlier edition which are not helping the health care professionals, can be looked for possible changes and enhancements.
The experts are actually focusing on removing the current category of Nos (Not Otherwise Specified) in DSM-IV and on improving diagnostic criteria which is not precise. The treatment targets are also looked for betterment for clinicians. Additionally they are looking for addressing the common symptoms not addressed within diagnostic criteria for one illness. They can be solved by identifying the need of cross-cutting dimensional assessments. For instance, the case of depressed mood, anxiety level, sleep quality and substance use can also be important for clinicians to know regardless of the patient’s final or intermediate diagnosis.
New Diagnoses or Obsolete Diagnosis as part of DSM-5
The DSM cannot create a new medical condition or behaviour from the full set of human nature, behaviour and emotions. DSM can establish clear criteria for diagnosing mental disorders.
Any new or majorly modified mental health diagnosis will come into effect only after comprehensive and thorough review of the scientific literature. There will be proper review with the work group members and DSM-5 Task Force and Advisors.
Why DSM 5 does not contain treatment information?
DSM-5 is the manual for provding assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders and it will not contain information or guidelines for treatment in any capacity. DSM-5 will also be helpful in measuring the effectiveness of treatment.