Type of learning disabilityTweet
The most frequent manifestation of learning disability is uniformly low performance on all kinds of intellectual task including learning, short term memory, the use of concepts, and problem solving. Specific abnormalities may lead to particular difficulties. For example, lack of visuospatial skills may cause practical difficulties, such as inability to dress, or there may be disproportionate difficulties with language or social interaction, both of which are strongly associated with behaviour disorder. Among learning-disabled children, the common behaviour problems of childhood tend to occur when they are older and more physically developed than normal children and the problems last longer. Such behaviour problems usually improve slowly as the child grows older but may be replaced by problems that start in adult life.
The different type of learning disability are as follows:
Mild type of learning disability (IQ 50-70)
Moderate type of learning disability (IQ 35-49)
People in this group account for about 10% of the learning disabled. Most have better receptive than expressive language skills, which is a potent cause of frustration and challenging behavior. Speech is usually relatively simple and often better understood by people who know the patient well. Many make use of simplified signing systems such as Makaton sign language. Activities of daily living such as dressing, feeding, and attention to hygiene are usually acquired over time but extended activities of daily living including use of money and road sense generally require support. Similarly, supported employment and residential provision are the rule.
Severe type of learning disability (IQ 20-34)
People with severe learning disability account for about 3-4% of the learning disabled. In the preschool years their development is usually greatly slowed. Eventually many of them can be helped to look after themselves under close supervision and to communicate in a simple way, for example, by using objects of reference. As adults they can undertake simple tasks and engage in limited social activities, but they need supervision and a clear structure to their lives.
Profound type of learning disability (IQ below 20)
People in this group account for 1-2% of the learning disabled. Development across a range of domains tends to be at the level expected of a 12- month-old infant. Accordingly, people with profound learning disability are a vulnerable and highly needy group who require support and supervision, even for simple activities of daily living.