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Tyramine ( 4-hydroxy- phenethylamine )



Tyramine is a natural substance formed from the breakdown of protein as food ages. The chemical tyramine appears naturally in a variety of foods, especially those that are aged and those containing a large amount of yeast.

Tyramine (4-hydroxy- phenethylamine ) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine , that is a member of the phenethylamine family.

Antidepressant tyramine

Tyramine is know to interact with monoamine oxidase inhibitors leading to dangerous effects. Tyramine is also thought to trigger cluster headaches. Tyramine is ordinarily harmless. But for people taking MAO inhibitor drugs such as the antidepressant medications Nardil and Parnate, it poses a severe threat. When combined with these drugs, it can cause a sudden, dangerous spike in blood pressure.

Food containing tyramine and diet

Examples of foods and beverages which contain tyramine include: beer, ale, robust red wines, Chianti, vermouth, homemade breads, cheese, crackers (with cheese), sour cream, bananas, red plums, figs, raisins, avocados, fava beans, Italian broad beans, green bean pods, eggplant, pickled herring, liver dry sausages, canned meats, salami, yogurt, soup cubes, commercial gravies, chocolate, and soy sauce.

Aged cheeses have the highest levels of tyramine. Some foods contain bacterial enzymes that convert tyrosine (an amino acid in foods) to tyramine.

Tyramine may also independently increase dopamine (DA) levels, but this effect is not yet well established.

Although this may appear to be bad news, tyramine also stimulates glucose uptake in other insulin-sensitive tissues, such as cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle.

The cardiovascular effects of tyramine from dietary sources are unlikely to be significant, as the MAO system is highly efficient. Even moderate supplemental use will probably not have much of an effect on cardiovascular variables. The average fasted subject requires about 500 mg of tyramine orally for even a minimal increase in blood pressure, and taking tyramine with food decreases the bioavailability by approximately half. However, those who are being treated with some MAO inhibitors (primarily used as antidepressants) may get a hypertensive reaction with as little as 10 mg, while a high tyramine meal may contain as much as 20-40 mg

Heart radioactivity levels after reboxetine and tranylcypromine were very similar to those found when tyramine was injected after reboxetine only. These results suggest that reboxetine might be advantageously combined with tranylcypromine, or any MAO inhibitor, in depressed patients unresponsive of either treatment given alone.

I have all the symptoms of the MAO inhibitors and the tyramine but I don't take MAO inhibitors?? So is my enzyme suddenly low??? I am on the headache diet and I do seem to feel better right now,,its only been a week. My doctor put me on an anti-depressant at night but he said it is not an anti-depressant dose. I havent' started taking it yet. He says this is a manifestation of my migraine headache. ---K. Vaccaro

Sometimes crying or laughing
are the only options left,
and laughing feels better right now.

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