A new study has raised the question whether or not too many people are being diagnosed as having depression. While Professor Gordon Parker, a psychiatrist from Australia says that the threshold for clinical depression is too low, Professor Ian Hickie says otherwise.
Prof Parker carried out a study, following 242 teachers. 15 years into the study, he noted that 79% of the people had met the symptom duration criteria for major, minor or sub-syndrome depression. This caused him to conclude that it is normal to be depressed, reports the BMJ. He also warned that over diagnosis of clinical depression could lead to a diagnosis of it becoming less creditable.
However, Prof Hickie states that if increased diagnosis and treatment has actually led to demonstrable benefits and is cost effective, and then it is not yet being over diagnosed. He insists that diagnosis and treatment has led to a reduction in suicides and increased productivity. He also adds that due to this, there has been a reduction in the stigma attached to being depressed.Â
Stress is bad not only for your blood pressure and your heart, but also,Â as it turns out , for your mouth, a literature review has found. The review was conducted by Daiane Peruzzo, PhD, who found that 57% of studies included in the review showed appositive relationship between periodontal diseases and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, depression and loneliness.
Researchers speculate that the hormone cortisol may play a role in the possible connection between stress and periodontal disease. A previous study had found that increased level of cortisol can lead to increased destruction of the gums and jawbone due to periodontal disease. It is well known that periodontal disease, if left untreated, can ultimately lead to bone loss or tooth loss.Â Â Â Â
â€œIndividuals with high stress levels tend to increase their bad habits, which can be harmful to periodontal health. They are less attentive to their oral hygiene and may increase their use of nicotine, alcohol or drugs, â€œexplained Preston d Miller, Presidence American Academy of periodontology.
â€œPatient should seek healthy way to relieve stress through exercise, balanced eating, plenty of sleep, and maintaining a positive mental attitude, â€œhe added.
Peruzzo now calls for more research to be done in this field.â€ More research is needed to determine the definitive relationship between stress and periodontal diseases,â€ she said.
â€œHowever, patients who minimize stress may be at a lesser risk for periodontal diseases,â€ she added.Â Â
The review appears in the August issue of the journal of periodontalogy.