Focal (Partial) Seizure Disorder
Focal seizure is also called as partial seizure, Jacksonian seizure or Seizure-partial (focal). Abnormal electrical disturbances in one part of the brain give rise to focal (partial) seizure. In temporal lobe epilepsy focal seizure is very usual. If entire brain affected giving rise to seizure then it is called as secondary generalization. Any age group can be affected by focal seizure but it is less in children than adults.
Focal (Partial) seizure is further divided into two types
- Simple partial seizures-No loss of consciousness, weakness or twitching of the muscles.
- Complex partial seizures-Loss of consciousness, automatisms and feeling of aura.
Causes of Focal (Partial) Seizure
- Electrical disturbances in specific part of brain
- Brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, meningitis or brain surgery
- Family history of seizures
Symptoms of Focal (Partial) Seizure
- Contraction and relaxation of muscles.
- One side of body is affected.
- Abnormal mouth, tongue movements or lip smacking
- Repetition of words or phrases
- Unpleasant smell or taste which is not real
- Movements of eye and head turning
- Crawling feeling or change in mood
Diagnostic procedures for Focal (Partial) Seizure
- An EEG may show characteristic changes in pattern.
- Blood test such as blood chemistry, blood sugar, kidney function tests, liver function tests etc.
- CT or MRI scan depending on symptoms and patients history seizure is detected.
Treatment for Focal (Partial) Seizure
- Medicines-Oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, valproate, gabapentin and topiramate medicines dose may prescribed by doctor. It may responsible for some side effect.
- Surgery-corpus callosotomy operation is carried out in some cases. The area from where seizure is arising is removed by surgery. Even after surgery medicine may required.
- Vagus nerve stimulation-A small battery is placed inside chest which sends electric energy to the brain through the left vagus nerve in the neck.
Prevention for Focal (Partial) Seizure
- Use helmet to avoid head injury
- Avoid drug use and excessive drinking of alcohol.
- Proper diet, medicines and enough sleep may reduce seizure.
- Cure underlying diseases which may reduce chances of further seizure
- Don’t stop antiseizure medicine suddenly because it may again give rise to seizure.
- During medical treatment avoid driving.
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