Receptive-expressive development language disorder
In this disorder the understanding of language is below the level appropriate to the child’s mental age. In almost all cases, expressive language is also disturbed (a fact recognized in DSM-IV by the term receptive-expressive language disorder).
Characteristics of the Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
The development of receptive language ability varies considerably among normal children. However, failure to respond to familiar names, in the absence of non-verbal cues, by the beginning of the second year of age, or failure to respond to simple instructions by the end of the second year, are significant signs suggesting receptive language disorder – provided that deafness, learning disability, and pervasive developmental disorder have been excluded. Associated social and behavioral problems are particularly frequent in this form of language disorder.
The prevalence depends on the criteria for diagnosis, but a frequency of up to 3% of school-age children has been suggested (American Psychiatric Association 1994a). The prognosis is poor with around 75% continuing throughout childhood. The prognosis is worse when the language disorder is severe, or there is a co-morbid condition, such as conduct disorder.
Treatment of this disorder
Treatment is through special education. The psychiatrist’s role is the same as in expressive language disorder
Video Games has the power to relieve depression
Researchers have found promising results for treating depression with a video game interface that targets underlying cognitive issues associated with depression rather than just managing the symptoms.
According to Dr. Patricia Areán, a UW Medicine researcher in psychiatry and behavioral sciences, the findings are both intriguing and promising. The first study enrolled older adults diagnosed with late-life depression into a treatment trial where they were randomized to receive either a mobile, tablet-based treatment technology developed by Akili Interactive Labs called Project: EVO or an in-person therapy technique known as problem-solving therapy (PST).
The Project: EVO runs on phones and tablets and is designed to improve focus and attention at a basic neurological level. The results showed that the group using Project: EVO demonstrated specific cognitive benefits (such as attention) compared to the behavioral therapy, and saw similar improvements in mood and self-reported function. The studies were funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.
Another research on Video Games effects on Depression
Researchers at the University of California Davis are using video games and brain training applications to treat depression. The study found that not only can video games potentially treat depression, but when participants are reminded to play games, they are more likely to play more often and increase time playing, which may help patients gain further benefit from the treatment, though the researchers did not measure that.
The study used six, three-minute specifically designed video games played by 160 student participants with an average age of 21. The study showed in most cases playing a game helped participants feel they had some control over their depression. The games were an adaptation of neurophysiological training tasks shown to improve cognitive control in people with depression.
The messages used to remind participants to play the video games targeted depression as either internal from a chemical imbalance or hereditary, or external from environmental and lifestyle factors. The reminder messages had differences in approach but all concluded with inspirational notes to encourage participants to play the game.
Naturopathy is a combination of different methods of natural healing that are extremely wide-ranging, and a practitioner may become a specialist in one particular area. Although naturopathy can be used to treat the symptoms of an illness it is, fundamentally, a way of life and a means of disease prevention. The management of stress and anxiety is a particular area that is addressed by naturopathy and adopting a healthy, naturopathic lifestyle benefits everybody and can be helpful to those suffering from phobias.
Naturopathy’s principle therapeutic elements
The examination of nutrition and diet including the use of vitamin and mineral supplements. Detoxification – the use of short periods of fasting or controlled diets and supplements to aid the natural processes by which the body rids itself of toxic substances.
Ways and means to control and reduce stress and anxiety including recognising and eliminating the cause whenever possible, relaxation techniques, modification of diet and the use of supplements, particularly to support the adrenal gland.
- Hydrotherapy – the use of water to promote healing.
- Herbal medicine Homeopathy
- Physical therapies such as massage, chiropractic and osteopathy
Counseling and lifestyle modification, which can be of particular value in relieving psychological, behavioral and emotional problems as well as physical ailments. Treatment may include hypnotherapy, relaxation ,techniques, visualization (image) therapy, color, music or dance therapy in addition to other naturopathic methods.
The use of acupuncture and Oriental therapies such as shiatsu, yoga and T’ai Chi Ch’uan
Exercise – the importance of exercise in the promotion of good health, including psychological and emotional wellbeing, and in the treatment of ailments is recognized by naturopaths and forms a part of most therapeutic programs.
A naturopath is interested in the person as a whole and not just in a particular condition or set of symptoms that may be troubling the patient. Hence consulting a naturopath gives a person the chance to discuss every aspect of life with someone who is concerned to offer help.
The differences between the two approaches can perhaps be best understood by considering an illustration. Behavioral therapy may be able to help an agoraphobic to get used to the feared situation by repeated exposure. However, it is also possible that the agoraphobic could be employing an undisclosed safety or coping strategy on which he is secretly relying. He might in fact have his belief in the effectiveness of this reinforced by exposure alone, that is believing that he can confront the agoraphobic situation better because his safety strategy is working so well.
Also, if panic control measures have been strongly taught as a part of behavioral therapy the patient may subsequently be able to enter the agoraphobic situation only because he now believes that he can avoid catastrophe by employing them. It is then likely that he will not have come to realize that panic symptoms are harmless as this belief is not challenged by control alone. His agoraphobia has been controlled rather than changed and panic control has become a safety or coping strategy in its own right.
Cognitive Therapy facts
In cognitive therapy, panic control would perhaps be viewed as one of several useful measures aimed at changing an agoraphobic’s belief in the harmfulness of panic symptoms. In practice, cognitive therapy experiments, such as those described above, have to incorporate exposure, which is a key element of behavioral therapy.
There is, in fact, a considerable degree of overlap between the two approaches. The behavioral approach to agoraphobia, based on exposure therapy, has been proved to be effective in most cases and has also been shown to bring about cognitive changes. Many experts believe that the effectiveness of purely cognitive treatments has not been established or is inferior to that of behavioral therapy. The same view also tends to be taken with regard to combined therapies which have been tried. However, both behavioral and cognitive approaches have been proved valuable in the treatment of panic disorder.
The fact that a high percentage of agoraphobics are helped by behavioral exposure therapy is especially encouraging when one considers that it is generally only the most severely affected patients who seek treatment. As mentioned above, it is thought that many agoraphobics (no doubt including those who see themselves as being less seriously affected) remain ‘hidden’ within the community and never seek professional help. Hence part of the function of a book such as this should be to stress the importance and effectiveness of treatment compared with suffering the distress of agoraphobia.
Panic attacks and disorders – Difference and Complex relationship
Panic (or anxiety) attack
A panic attack involves the sudden appearance of four or more of the following mental and physical symptoms which are the typical symptoms of extreme anxiety. These are:
- Rapid rate of heartbeat or palpitations.
- Breathlessness or a feeling of being smothered.
- Tightness or pain in the chest.
- Tremor, trembling, shaking.
- Feeling hot or cold or alternating between the two.
- Shivering or sweating; pallor.
- Choking feeling in the throat.
- Dizziness, feelings of faintness or light-headedness.
- Nausea or gastro-intestinal symptoms.
- Tingling in the extremities of the limbs or feelings of numbness.
- Fear that loss of physical control (for example of bladder and bowels) is imminent.
- Fear that mental collapse and loss of control or , madness’ are imminent.
- Feelings of detachment and unreality and fear that one may be dying.
The symptoms rapidly reach a peak of intensity within ten minutes of first appearing and then disappear as quickly as they arose. Although a panic attack can be extremely distressing, it is not physically harmful although the sufferer frequently believes that it is. Panic attacks are extremely common with about a third of people experiencing one in any given year.
Panic (or anxiety) disorder
Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of panic attacks which, at least in the first instance, arise unexpectedly and are not attached to a particular situation or stimulus. Anticipatory anxiety about the occurrence of further spontaneous attacks is a major part of the disorder. In many, but not all, cases the person avoids the place or situation where a panic attack occurred and this aspect has a strong correlation with agoraphobia.
The person also commonly believes that the panic attack is symptomatic of a serious physical disorder, such as a brain tumor or heart condition, and may report to a doctor or hospital on this basis. A diagnosis of panic disorder is unlikely to be made in these circumstances although it may emerge at a later date. The disorder itself is uncommon, affecting fewer than one in a hundred people in any given six-month period.
Specific Developmental expressive Language Disorder
In this disorder, the ability to use expressive spoken language is markedly below the level appropriate for the child’s mental age. Language comprehension is within normal limits but there may be abnormalities in articulation. Language development varies considerably among normal children, but the absence of single words by 2 years of age, and of two-word phrases by 3 years of age signifies abnormality. Signs at later ages include restricted vocabulary, difficulties in selecting appropriate words, and immature grammatical usage. Nonverbal communication, if impaired, is not affected as severely as spoken language, and the child makes efforts to communicate. Disorders of behavior are often present.
Cluttering – some children speak rapidly and with an erratic rhythm such that the grouping of words does not reflect the grammatical structure of their speech. This abnormality, which is known as cluttering, is classified as an associated feature of expressive language disorder in DSM-IV but in ICD-I0 it is classified (with stammering) among other behavioral disorders of childhood.
Prevalence of expressive language disorder depends on the method of assessment; a rate of 3-5% of children has been proposed (American Psychiatric Association 1994a).
Prognosis of the disorder
It is reported that about half of the children meeting DSM-IV criteria develop normal speech by adult life, while the rest have long lasting difficulties (American Psychiatric Association
1994a). Prognosis is worse when the language disorder is severe, or there is a co-morbid condition, such as conduct disorder.
Treatment of Expressive Language Disorder
Treatment is mainly through special education. Psychiatrists are likely to be involved when there is a co-morbid disorder, and may need to advise the parents about the child’s rights for special education.
This disorder is also known as arithmetic disorder. The first of these terms is used in DSM-IV; is used in ICD-10. It contains difficulty with arithmetic is probably the second most common specific disorder. Problems include failure to understand simple mathematical concepts, failure to recognize numerical symbols or mathematical signs, difficulty in carrying out arithmetic manipulations, and inability to learn mathematical tables.
These problems are not due simply to lack of opportunities to learn and are evident from the time of the child’s first attempts to learn mathematics. There has been no study of its epidemiology, although it is thought to be quite common. Although it causes less severe handicap in everyday life than reading difficulties, it can lead to secondary emotional difficulties when the child is at school.
The causes are uncertain. Dyscalculia occurs in some adults with parietal lobe lesions, but no brain damage has been found in children with specific arithmetic disorder. It seems unlikely that there is a single cause. Assessment is usually based on the arithmetic subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and on specific tests. Treatment is by remedial teaching but it is not known whether it is effective.
Tai Chi can improve Depression and its Symptoms
The psychological benefits of physical exercise have been very well documented, but very few studies have checked and researched the possible mental health benefits of Tai Chi. There has been a recent study which analyzed the effects of Tai Chi on emotional well-being.
The popularity of Tai Chi has spread worldwide over the past two decades. It is a slow motion moving meditative exercise for relaxation, health and self-defense.
According to the research conducted, Tai Chi may be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem” among individuals with chronic physical illnesses as well as healthy individuals. There are certain populations which experienced the specific benefits of Tai Chi.
In the study conducted, there were several groups of individuals which included healthy individuals, elderly individuals with cardiovascular disease risk factors, adolescents with ADHD, obese women, and healthy adults, reported mood improvements associated with the practice of Tai Chi. All the healthy elderly participants reported improved self-esteem. The team does not recommended that Tai chi has more benefits compared to other forms of exercise and mindfulness training.
Benefits of Tai Chi
- Practicing the precise movements also reduced stress and anxiety, researchers found.
- Millions of people practice Tai Chi every morning, and lot of people gets physical and mental health benefits.
- It is designed to promote relaxation and improve balance, strength and suppleness.
What is Tai Chi?
- Tai Chi refers to a set of 20 movements, learned over 8 weeks, that are a form of mindful exercise.
- The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chih include lowering blood pressure and weight.
- “Chi” refers to the intrinsic universal energy present in all individuals.
- It is derived from Chinese martial art used both for exercise and for health benefits.
Support for Cancer Patients is Available and it is Effective
Cancer is a disease which is often scary, life threatening and often causes people to become anxious. People if diagnosed with cancer often need assistance and support from all sorts of support groups including family and neighbors.
There are many Cancer Support helplines available which has licensed counselors to provide guidance, resources and support to callers with a variety of needs from getting information about cancer, identifying a local support group or just finding someone who is willing to listen.
Additional Cancer Support Helpline Services
- Connecting callers to local or national resources, including support groups, transportation services and other programs
- Short-term cancer counseling and emotional assistance
- Treatment decision planning
- Financial counseling regarding the costs of cancer and its treatments
- Specialized information on genetic counseling and pediatric oncology
- Access to an online distress screening program, CancerSupportSource
- General information about the Cancer Support Community
Most Cancer Council support services are provided at a local level in each and every country and state. Each state and territory Cancer Council offers a range of patient support facilities. They provide services such as:
- counseling services
- support groups and networks
- education groups, programs and information
- practical assistance
When you need assistance or advice on cancer-related topics, many organizations will offer their expertise at no charge.
Multiple Sclerosis and Depression Effects on Each other
According to Mental Health America, if you are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis, whether you have depression or not can be judged by asking yourself following two questions:
- During the past two weeks, have you often felt down, depressed or hopeless?
- During the past two weeks, have you had little interest or pleasure in doing things?
If you have answered “yes” to either or both of above questions, you might be having depression which is one of the common symptoms of MS.
If you answered “no” to above these, but constantly have low mood, you may be experiencing normal grieving or other changes. Grief is generally time-limited and resolves on its own..
Many people with MS focus only on their physical health and neglect their emotional health — which is an essential component of overall health and wellness.
The Link between MS and Depression
Anyone having too much stress or a tough situation may suffer from depression. Hence it is easy to postulate the effects of MS can cause mood changes and hence depression.
- MS itself might also cause depression. The disease may destroy the protective coating around nerves that helps the brain send signals that affect mood.
- Depression is also a side-effect of some the drugs that treat multiple sclerosis, such as steroids and interferon.
Depression and other MS symptoms
There are many similarities when it comes about the symptoms of depression and MS. At times, when these conditions coexist what is causing what symptom is often misjudged. For example, fatigue can be related to depression, or may be a direct result of MS, or a combination.
There is no link established on the running length of one symptom being present due to depression and its severity direct impact of another. For example, someone who is recently diagnosed can be as depressed as someone who has had MS for many years.
Nerve damage and depression in MS
Research has been done to see if depression can be directly linked to MS-related damage in particular areas of the brain. Some studies have suggested that there is a link, though they also suggest that MS-related nerve damage is only part of the equation.