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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder or PMDD is a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are linked closely to the menstrual cycle. The symptoms of PMDD start seven to 14 days before menstruation, and they resolve a few days after menstruation starts. More severe than PMS, affecting three to five percent of menstruating women, this syndrome is labeled as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Patients with severe PMDD are at risk for developing postpartum depression.
The impact PMDD has on a woman's life and the life of those around her is not trivial, and should be taken more seriously by our society. According to a leading researcher in this field of study, Dr. Jean Endicott: "Many women report that their PMDD symptoms have caused seriously impaired relationships with relatives, friends, or co-workers, as well as with spouses or partners. Often, relationships have been lost because others say they can no longer 'put up with' some of the recurrent behaviors."
What are the causes of PMDD?
The causes of PMS and PMDD have not been identified, although social, cultural, biological, and psychological factors all appear to be involved. Researchers estimate that PMDD affects between 3% and 8% of women in their reproductive years.
There are, however, quite a few hypotheses on the causes of these disorders. Obviously, hormones must play a role because women report the disappearance of symptoms after their ovaries are removed. There is also evidence that the brain chemical serotonin is a factor that causes the more severe PMDD.
Although the exact cause of PMDD is not known, several theories have been proposed. Many researchers believe that one of the causes of PMDD is a low level of serotonin, which is also a cause of depression. One theory states that women who experience PMDD may have abnormal reactions to normal hormone changes that occur with each menstrual cycle. This may include the fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone levels that normally occur with menstruation causing a serotonin deficiency, in some women (Serotonin is a substance found naturally in the brain and intestines that acts as a vessel-narrowing substance, or vasoconstrictor). Additional research is necessary.
What are the Symptoms of PMDD?
PMDD is listed in the DSM-IV as a "depressive disorder not otherwise specified." The symptoms of PMDD are remarkably similar to those of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Find the detail list of Symptom of PMDD.
What are the treatments available for PMDD?
Treatment for PMS depends on the severity of the symptoms. Over the years, many treatments have been used for premenstrual symptoms, for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and most recently for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
In addition, it is important to keep a diary or calendar to record the type, severity, and duration of symptoms. Check out the detail list of all the treatment of PMDD.
PMDD Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder - Learn about basics of PMDD, some statistics related to PMDD and its diagnosis criterion.
PMDD Information - "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder" (PMDD) is a real biological condition for which women seek treatment--and for which effective treatment is available.
PMDD Treatment - Treatments include medication, lifestyle changes, supportive psychotherapy and nutritional approches.
PMDD Medication - To treat the emotional symptoms of PMDD (e.g., depression, tearfulness, mood swings, anxiety, anger, irritability, fatigue, difficulty concentrating), the majority of experts recommend antidepressant medications.
PMDD Symptoms - Symptoms occur during the last week of most menstrual cycles and usually improve within a few days after the period starts.
Postpartum Depression basics and treatment : Many new mothers feel sad, afraid, angry, or nervous after their baby is born. These feelings, called postpartum or "baby" blues, are very common.